The Police and Crime History of Criminal Investigation: The investigation of crime involves the study of various facts and findings, with the intention of finding whether an individual is guilty or not, for an offence. This process involves the use of a variety of techniques, which includes interviews, interrogations, forensic analysis, etc (Fisher Fisher, 2012). The investigation of crime is a concept that has a long history, and the function of detectives was able to develop gradually. However, it is important to explain that, it is the CID who had the responsibility of investigating crime. This was a specialized unit, responsible for investigating crime, and could be found in all police stations in the United Kingdom (Beauregard and Martineau, 2014). However, the powers of investigators were ambiguous. This is because there wasnâ€™t any law that was able to spell out the role of investigators, and the rights of the people under investigation (Rossmo and Summers, 2015). This was a major challenge to the investigatory process, basically because the detectives could breach on the rights of people, because of the absence of a clear guideline on how to investigate (Taylor, Fritsch and Liederbach, 2014). Furthermore, investigators had very limited training. This had an impact of negatively affecting the efficiency of their investigations, hence the results. It is because of these limited training, that the status of investigatory officers was able to rise up very slowly. Organizational Processes: Crown Prosecution Service: Until 1984, it was the police department that was in charge of the investigation of criminal activities. The introduction of the 1984, law of Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) is significant, because it was able to identify the role of the police officers, and the rights that the public had. This is with the intention of protecting the citizens from abuses by the police. Until 1986, it is the police who were responsible for investigating crime, and prosecuting crime. However, this responsibility and duties changed in the year 1986. This is basically because of the emergence of the Crown Prosecution Office. This came into being with the enactment of the 1985 Prosecution Offences Act. The Crown Prosecution Office has the responsibility of prosecuting every criminal charge, brought against an individual (Newburn, 2012). This office is very important because it ensures that the police would not be the prosecutors, as well as the investigators of a criminal offence. This helps in protecting the citizens from abuses by police officers, who may carry out inadequate investigation, and press charges with limited evidence (Carr-Hill Stern, 2014). The impact of this situation is that the police officers may prosecute an innocent person, or they may fail to get justice to the victim, because of the inability of successful prosecuting the case, leading to a conviction. The Crown Prosecution Service is therefore important, basically because it would ensure that the quality of investigation is high, and cases are brought to the courts, if there is sufficient evidence warranting their prosecution (Baker, 2013). This has therefore helped in solving issues pertaining to poor investigation of an offence. Volume Crimes: In as much as there is the existence of the crown prosecution service, it is very difficult to solve and investigate volume crimes (Beauregard and Martineau, 2014). These are the majority of offences that are committed in England and Wales. These criminal activities are very difficult to solve, hence on most occasions, their victims normally do not get justice. Because of their large number, the criminal department is overwhelmed in investigating these criminal activities. This means that there are no enough personnel who can help in investigating these criminal activities. This is a major challenge facing investigators (Lister, 2013). To solve on this situation, there is a need of hiring more personnel, and training them on the best methods of investigating this type of crime. Serious Crimes The investigation of serious crimes is also has challenges. The CID has a monopoly in this area, and it makes it difficult for other organs of the police force to demand for accountability in the manner which these criminal activities are investigated. Furthermore, the media has portrayed the investigation of these types of offences as glorious, and this limits the effectiveness of investigators. An example is the Sherlock Holmes series of investigations, where the media glorifies the activities of detective Holmes (Taylor, Fritsch and Liederbach, 2014). This is a misconception portrayed by the media. Risk Factors: Furthermore, the quality of investigation is affected by the risks that are placed on police officers to perform. This is in circumstances when there is a public outcry on the rise of insecurity in certain areas of the country. Too much pressure has the capability of affecting the quality of an investigation (Griffiths, 2014). There is also too much reliance on interviews and this is a challenge because people may lie while being interviewed. Furthermore, it is possible to categorize such kinds of evidence as hearsay by the courts. This means that they will not be admissible (Kassin et al, 2014). Investigators, also have a close relationship with criminals. This is basically because it is difficult to crack an underground crime organization without the help of criminalsâ€™ officers. This is unethical practice, because it is wrong to associate with people, that they are tasked to fight against. Detection Rates: Detection rates also present a challenge to investigation of crime. This refers to the criminal activities that have been successfully solved. This is always a political process, and the judges and the courts may be influenced. This is based on the perception of the society. Forensic Science and the Media: The emergence of the media has played a role in blurring reality, with fiction. This means that it has an influence in making some fictional activities to be reality, hence affecting the quality of investigation. Take for example, the investigative ability of Sherlock Holmes. He is a fictional character, depicted as being highly talented. Some of his skills are not realistic, and cannot be implemented. Furthermore, lack of high quality technologies plays a role in limiting the results of investigation. Debate arises in the United Kingdom, on the need of reviewing some cases that were prosecuted in 1980s, and early 1990s, with the use of technology, for purposes of solving them. Furthermore, because of inadequate skills, there is poor use of forensic technology, for purposes of determining the real culprit of a criminal offence. Poor communication of its use is also a factor affecting the quality of investigations. Conclusion There are a lot of challenges facing the investigations of criminal offences. As discussed earlier, one of the crimes that police are unable to investigate adequately are voluminous crimes. This is because of the lack of enough personnel, who can investigate these criminal activities. Furthermore, the monopoly of the CID over serious crimes makes it to be unaccountable to any policing department. In as much as these challenges exist, with proper reforms and policies, there is a possibility of overcoming them. Bibliography: BAKER, S. (2013). Has the introduction of Police and Crime Commissioners provided accountability to local people?: a Case Study in Hampshire and IOW. BEAUREGARD, E., MARTINEAU, M. (2014). No body, no crime? The role of forensic awareness in avoiding police detection in cases of sexual homicide. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(2), 213-220. CARR-HILL, R. A., STERN, N. H. (2014). Crime, the police and criminal statistics: an analysis of official statistics for England and Wales using econometric methods. Academic Press. FISHER, B. A., FISHER, D. R. (2012). Techniques of crime scene investigation. CRC Press. GRIFFITHS, A. G. F. (2014). Mysteries of police and crime. Arthur George Frederick Griffiths. KASSIN, S. M., KUKUCKA, J., LAWSON, V. Z., DECARLO, J. (2014). Does video recording alter the behavior of police during interrogation? A mock crime-and- investigation study. Law and human behavior, 38(1), 73. LISTER, S. (2013). The new politics of the police: police and crime commissioners and the â€˜operational independenceâ€™of the police. Policing, 7(3), 239-247. NEWBURN, T. (Ed.). (2012). Handbook of policing. Routledge. ROSSMO, D. K., SUMMERS, L. (2015). Routine Activity Theory in Crime Investigation. The Criminal Act: The Role and Influence of Routine Activity Theory, 19. TAYLOR, R. W., FRITSCH, E. J., LIEDERBACH, J. (2014). Digital crime and digital terrorism. Prentice Hall Press.
1.What is your monthly budget for consumption of drinks? Ans- Around Rs 300. 2 .Are you satisfied with the drinks available to you in the market? Ans- Yes, although different flavours would be appreciated, along with aerated fruit drinks. 3.Do you find the price range of these drinks to be appropriate?what is yan approximation of an ideal prioce? Ans- Not really. As it exceeds the budget if you generally eat out more than twice a week as is the case with most people. Rs 15 for 200 ml 4.Are you willing to make changes to your existing choice of product?what would u like to see in a drink? Ans- Yes, if a new product with my requirements is available. Less sugar , less preservatives natural, no preservatives colour calories etc 5.What more do you expect from your drink manufacturer that can help you to derive maximum satisfaction? Ans-Healthier drinks are more appreciated as opposed to sugar filled carbonated drinks. Also the pricing can be changed to make it better for consumers to buy on a regular basis. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR RETAILERS- MORE MANAGER, SADAKAT PEERZADE 1.What is your approximate profits from the sale of Soft drinks per month? Ans- turnover Around 1-2 lakhs, about 2-3 % . 2.Are you willing to take up promotional activities for a new range of products in this line? What kind? Ans- yes if the product is up to the standards we require and we get some incentives. 3.What is the feedback received from the consumers regarding the available products? Ans- Customers wanted more healthy options, drinks with less sugar, the most popular being Real fruit juices. 4.Do the existing manufacturer provide you assistance for the marketing ofÂ their products? Ans-Yes such as discounts on products and special offers offering extra quantity at the same price. Coupon booklets are also used along with leaflets. 5.Do you suggest any changes in the Marketing/Distribution system which can help to save cost? Ans- Providing more coolers and other storage facilities for stock to ensure better distribution. Also better packaging, quick deliveries so extra stock need not be kept. Free samples.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.